This will not only protect you from breathing in particles that can irritate your airways; it can also protect a part of your face from UV radiation! You can either slap on sunscreen or a make up product with sun protection. Make sure that the sunscreen provides broad-spectrum protection i. Reapply when necessary. Remove make up and sunscreen thoroughly at the end of the day. I haven't been wearing make up apart from BB cream since the haze started.
Make up, combined with the dirt from the smog, increased oil production and skin irritation can cause pimples and acne to worsen. If you use make up, do remove all make up thoroughly with a make up cleanser and facial wash double cleansing. Sunscreen also has to be removed using make up remover. This is a piece of advice that should be followed whether the weather be fine or whether the weather be not, whether the weather be- Alright I'll stop there. Washing make up brushes ensures that dirt and germs aren't transferred to your skin from using the brushes. Wash brushes once a week and if possible, use a make up removing spray on them after each use.
Good hygiene will help you to have good skin! Use skincare products that are moisturising and have anti-oxidants.
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A basic skincare routine would be cleanser, toner, moisturiser and sunscreen. I'm currently using products that are more moisturising as the weather is much drier now. You can also consider products that contain anti-oxidants like Vitamin C, Green Tea, Pomegranate etc. I'd recommend the Neutrogena Hydro Boost line of products they allow for the controlled release of moisturising ingredients. Another option would be Hada Labo products, which contain high levels of hyaluronic acid, an ingredient that is extremely moisturising to the skin.
All products are available at Watsons stores. My skin is currently acting up, and I suspect it may be due to the haze and the stress it's causing on my body. Perhaps it's also due to the long hours I'm spending in air-conditioning - did you know that dry skin leads causes pimples to form? In adverse conditions, the best and worst of human behaviour is brought out.
Singaporeans have been looking out for each other in many ways.
One very savvy programmer even created a DIY Particle Counter to help monitor the amount of tiny particles in the air! The panic buying of N95 masks has also happened even though each person really only needs a few masks to last a week N95s are effective for up to a few days. This has deprived others e. In any case, watching this video still gives me hope that Singaporeans care for each other. Looking out for our neighbours means helping them through tough times - everyone needs a little care. For those of you who have pets, I'm sure you're very concerned about how to keep them healthy during this period of haze.
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I've heard of cats, hamsters and birds dying due to prolonged exposure to the haze, so pet owners, please take note of the following advice contributed by Mount Pleasant Animal Medical Centre! If your pet is experiencing any abnormal conditions, please visit the vet straight away for treatment. It's true that everyone feels distressed, helpless, frustrated and angry that the haze situation is persisting. It's not easy to see the humour in such a situation, especially when it has serious effects on health, but we can try to lighten the mood a little with some humour.
Humour helps to boost and strengthen the immune system and reduces stress after all!
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I am placing her near the equator so the weather is always warm and sunny, and her people will never suffer bitter cold nor unforgiving desert heat. She will also always be protected from any natural disasters. Her location will be strategically supreme so she will flourish as one of the world's busiest ports, travel spots, and business and education hubs.
Her size will be compact yet optimal to set the stage for political and economic excellence, allowing for low crime rates and high living standards for a truly multi-cultural, well-educated and highly skilled developed country. Source: Bloomberg. I'm quoting them for entertainment's sake, and do not endorse any form of discrimination on any of the above-mentioned parties. Contribute to an environmentally sustainable future. The haze is not the only environmental problem that's affecting Singapore and the world at large. To contribute to an environmentally sustainable future, we should all take responsibility as consumers and make informed decisions.
What is for sure, is that these are incredibly exciting times to study economics and to be an economist. Statistical Interactive Database Bank of England. As Economics for Business 6th ed page states:. Risk-weighted assets are the total value of assets, where each type of asset is multiplied by a risk factor.
Inter-bank lending between the major banks has a risk factor of 0. So what can the banks do? They must either raise additional capital the numerator in the CAR or reduce their risk-weighted assets the denominator. Banks hope to be able to raise additional capital. Generally, the banks aim to raise the required level of capital through income generation, the sale of assets and restructuring, rather than from issuing new shares.
What both the Bank of England and the government hope is that banks do not respond by reducing lending. As Robert Peston states:. I understand that both Barclays and Nationwide feel a bit miffed about being forced to hit this tough so-called leverage ratio at this juncture, because they are rare in that they have been supporting economic recovery by increasing their net lending. They now feel they are being penalised for doing what the government wants. So I would expect there to be something of a spat between government and regulators about all this.
Questions Explain what are meant by the various Basel III capital adequacy requirements What are the banks which were identified as having a capital shortfall doing about it?
Would it be desirable for banks to issue additional shares? Would this make the banks more secure? Would the raising of additional capital allow additional credit creation to take place? What other constraints are there on bank lending?
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Instead, it would crowd out private expenditure if the money supply were not allowed to rise as it would drive up interest rates. But if money supply were allowed to rise, this would be inflationary. The solution was to reduce budget deficits to increase confidence in public finances and to encourage private investment. Greater price and wage flexibility were the answer to markets not clearing. Keynes countered these arguments by arguing that the economy could settle in a state of mass unemployment, with low confidence leading to lower consumer expenditure, lower investment, lower incomes and lower employment.
The situation would be made worse, not better, by cuts in public expenditure or tax rises in an attempt to reduce the budget deficit. The solution was higher public expenditure to stimulate aggregate demand. This could be achieved by fiscal and monetary policies. Monetary policy alone could, however, be made ineffective by the liquidity trap. Extra money might simply be held rather than spent. Click here for a PowerPoint of the chart. The articles below consider the current situation. Many economists, but certainly not all, take a Keynesian line that austerity policies to reduce public-sector deficits have been counter-productive.
By dampening demand, such policies have reduced national income and slowed the recovery in both investment and consumer demand. This has at best slowed the rate of deficit reduction or at worst even increased the deficit, with lower GDP leading to a reduction in tax receipts and higher unemployment leading to higher government social security expenditure. Although monetary policy has been very loose, measures such as record low interest rates and quantitative easing have been largely ineffective in stimulating demand. Economies are stuck in a liquidity trap, with banks preferring to build their reserves rather than to increase lending.
This is the result partly of a lack of confidence and partly of pressure on them to meet Basel II and III requirements of reducing their leverage. But despite the call from many economists to use fiscal policy and more radical monetary policy to stimulate demand, most governments have been pre-occupied with reducing their deficits and ultimately their debt.
Their fear is that rising deficits undermine growth — a fear that was given weight by, amongst others, the work of Reinhart and Rogoff see the blog posts Reinhart and Rogoff: debt and growth and It could be you and see also Light at the end of the tunnel — or an oncoming train?
But there is some movement by governments. The new Japanese government under Shinzo Abe is following an aggressive monetary policy to drive down the exchange rate and boost aggregate demand see A J-curve for Japan? Why have many governments, including the UK government, been reluctant to pursue expansionary fiscal policies? What is meant by the liquidity trap? What is the way out of this trap?
What does he mean by this?
How are these two concepts relevant to the debate over austerity policies? What are the dangers in pursuing aggressive Keynesian policies?
What are the dangers in not pursuing aggressive Keynesian policies? The full regulations would come into force by These are shown in the chart below. According to the Bank of England:. This could be done, either by increasing the amount of capital or by reducing the amount of assets. The Bank of England is keen for banks not to reduce assets, which would imply a reduction in lending.