PDF Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition: Attention, Memory, and Executive Control

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Use of the extreme groups approach: A critical reexamination and new recommendations. Psychological Methods. On the practice of dichotomization of quantitative variables. Puzzlingly high correlations in fMRI studies of emotion, personality, and social cognition.

Handbook Of Individual Differences In Cognition: Attention, Memory, And Executive Control

Connectivity-based segregation of the human striatum predicts personality characteristics. Brain connectivity related to working memory performance. J Neurosci. The interplay of stimulus modality and response latency in neural network organization for simple working memory tasks. Assessing the working memory network: studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural equation modeling. How does reward expectation influence cognition in the human brain? J Cogn Neurosci. Brain Anatomical Network and Intelligence.

PLoS Computational Biology. Functionally linked resting-state networks reflect the underlying structural connectivity architecture of the human brain.

Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition : Attention, Memory, and Executive Control

Hum Brain Mapp. Retrieved May Segregating the significant from the mundane on a moment-to-moment basis via direct and indirect amygdala contributions. Prefrontal-subcortical pathways mediating successful emotion regulation. Neural activity predicts individual differences in visual working memory capacity. Todd JJ, Marois R. Posterior parietal cortex activity predicts individual differences in visual short-term memory capacity.

Working memory - Wikipedia

Mechanism for top-down control of working memory capacity. Computational analyses along with supporting neuroimaging data demonstrating that the core mechanism of working memory capacity might be lateral inhibitory interactions within parietal regions, but that individual differences in capacity might reflect variation in a dynamic top-down excitatory drive signal to this system from the lateral prefrontal cortex. Working memory capacity predicts dopamine synthesis capacity in the human striatum.

Striatal dopamine and working memory. Cereb Cortex. Bishop SJ.

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Trait anxiety and impoverished prefrontal control of attention. Surprising evidence that trait anxiety is associated with a reduced response in prefrontal cortex to response conflict even in the absence of threat, but only under conditions of low perceptual load, suggesting deficient allocation of attentional control when these are not fully engaged by the task at hand.

Motivational orientation modulates the neural response to reward. Neural reward processing is modulated by approach- and avoidance-related personality traits. Combined effects of attention and motivation on visual task performance: transient and sustained motivational effects. Front Hum Neurosci. Evidence that individual differences in personality traits indexing reward sensitivity modulate both sustained and transient neural activation dynamics during visuospatial attention, under task conditions in which reward incentives are used to manipulate motivational state.

Motivational influences on cognitive control: Behavior, brain activation, and individual differences. Prefrontal cortex mediation of cognitive enhancement in rewarding motivational contexts. Failure to regulate: counterproductive recruitment of top-down prefrontal-subcortical circuitry in major depression.


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Individual differences in some but not all medial prefrontal regions reflect cognitive demand while regulating unpleasant emotion. Reduced capacity to sustain positive emotion in major depression reflects diminished maintenance of fronto-striatal brain activation. Genetic structure of spatial and verbal working memory.

Behav Genet. Genetic covariance among measures of information processing speed, working memory, and IQ. The neuroscience of human intelligence differences. Nat Rev Neurosci. An accessible and comprehensive overview of intelligence, with a notable integration of recent neurobiological studies with the older and more extensive tradition of psychometric research in this domain.

Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely genetic in origin. Journal of experimental psychology General. Note that WM capacity was not included in their statistical model, leaving open the possibility that it can be strongly influenced by practice as suggested by others [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]. Intermediate phenotypes and genetic mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Nature Reviews Neuroscience.


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  4. Imaging the genetics of executive function. Biological Psychology. The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism: relations to the tonic-phasic dopamine hypothesis and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Review and theoretical synthesis of literature relating the COMT genetic polymorphism to individual variation between tonic vs. Executive subprocesses in working memory: relationship to catechol-O-methyltransferase ValMet genotype and schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Journal of cognitive neuroscience.

    Individual differences in distractibility: An update and a model

    Greater transient activity for the met variant is reported in hippocampus, consistent with greater difficulty updating WM for met individuals. Biological Psychiatry. Computational perspectives on dopamine function in prefrontal cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. Catechol-O-methyltransferase valmet genotype influences neural processing of reward anticipation. Cools R. Role of dopamine in the motivational and cognitive control of behavior.

    The Neuroscientist. Neural substrates of pleiotropic action of genetic variation in COMT: a meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry. Explaining the many varieties of working memory variation: Dual mechanisms of cognitive control. Variation in working memory. Flexible neural mechanisms of cognitive control within human prefrontal cortex.

    Prefrontal and striatal dopaminergic genes predict individual differences in exploration and exploitation. An elegant combination of molecular genetic and computational neuroscience approaches, reveals that polymorphisms in distinct genes controlling prefrontal and striatal dopamine function differentially modulate the basic trade-off between exploitation and exploration during a novel reinforcement learning paradigm.

    Adaptive gain and the role of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system in optimal performance. Journal of Comparative Neurology. Should I stay or should I go?

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    How the human brain manages the trade-off between exploitation and exploration. Training of working memory in children with ADHD. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology. Westerberg H, Klingberg T.

    Changes in cortical activity after training of working memory--a single-subject analysis. Physiol Behav. Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Cognitive learning is associated with gray matter changes in healthy human individuals: A tensor-based morphometry study. Learning sculpts the spontaneous activity of the resting human brain. Unlike gross anatomical measures, fs-fcMRI likely reflects functional connection weights across many synapses, providing important complementary information about changes in stable functional characteristics of the brain.

    The Journal of Physiology. How does Europe PMC derive its citations network? Protein Interactions. Fiechter, J. The metacognitive foundations of effective remembering. Tauber Eds. Working memory capacity offers resistance to mind-wandering and external distraction in a context specific manner. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29, Is playing videogames related to cognitive abilities? Psychological Science, 26, Intelligence, 49, Unsworth, N, Fukuda, K.

    Working memory delay activity predicts individual differences in cognitive abilities. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience , 27, The influence of encoding manipulations on the dynamics of free recall. Working memory capacity and reasoning. Thompson Eds. Working memory and fluid intelligence: Capacity, attention control, and secondary memory.

    Cognitive Psychology, 71, Similarities and differences between mind-wandering and external distraction: A latent variable analysis of lapses of attention and their relation to cognitive abilities.