Abstract Recent technological developments have revolutionised the lubricant industry by spurring a widespread quality improvement in both base oils and additives, giving superior finished lubricants. Citing Literature. Volume 14 , Issue 4 August Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer.
- Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications;
- Environment Management.
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Request Username Can't sign in? Forgot your username? Enter your email address below and we will send you your username. The U. In response to several major accidents involving trains carrying crude oil, the U. Department of Transportation and the Federal Railroad Administration established new standards for railroad tank cars, braking controls, and speed restrictions to reduce the potential for railroad accidents and oil spills.
Policy in the field of environment, safety and occupational health
Oil wells are plugged when they become uneconomic, and the area around the well may be restored. Some old offshore oil rigs are tipped over and left on the sea floor in a Rigs-to-Reefs program. Within a year after a rig is toppled, barnacles, coral, sponges, clams, and other sea creatures cover the rig. These artificial reefs attract fish and other marine life, and they increase fish populations and recreational fishing and diving opportunities.
Oil: crude and petroleum products explained Oil and the environment. What is energy? Units and calculators.
Use of energy. Energy and the environment. Also in What is energy? Forms of energy Sources of energy Laws of energy. Also in Units and calculators explained Units and calculators Energy conversion calculators British thermal units Btu Degree days. Also in U.
Mitigating Environmental Impact of Petroleum Lubricants | Ignatio Madanhire | Springer
Also in Use of energy explained Use of energy Energy use in industry Energy use for transportation Energy use in homes Energy use in commercial buildings Energy efficiency and conservation. Also in Energy and the environment explained Energy and the environment Greenhouse gases Greenhouse gases and the climate Where greenhouse gases come from Outlook for future emissions Recycling and energy.
Nonrenewable sources. Oil and petroleum products. Diesel fuel. Heating oil. Also in Oil and petroleum products explained Oil and petroleum products Refining crude oil Where our oil comes from Imports and exports Offshore oil and gas Use of oil Prices and outlook Oil and the environment.
Also in Gasoline explained Gasoline Octane in depth Where our gasoline comes from Use of gasoline Prices and outlook Factors affecting gasoline prices Regional price differences Price fluctuations History of gasoline Gasoline and the environment. Also in Diesel fuel explained Diesel fuel Where our diesel comes from Use of diesel Prices and outlook Factors affecting diesel prices Diesel fuel surcharges Diesel and the environment. Also in Heating oil explained Heating oil Where our heating oil comes from Use of heating oil Prices and outlook Factors affecting heating oil prices.
Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids. Natural gas. Also in Hydrocarbon gas liquids explained Hydrocarbon gas liquids Where do hydrocarbon gas liquids come from? Transporting and storing Uses of hydrocarbon gas liquids Imports and exports Prices. Also in Natural gas explained Natural gas Delivery and storage Natural gas pipelines Liquefied natural gas Where our natural gas comes from Imports and exports How much gas is left Use of natural gas Prices Factors affecting natural gas prices Natural gas and the environment Customer choice programs.
Also in Coal explained Coal Mining and transportation Where our coal comes from Imports and exports How much coal is left Use of coal Prices and outlook Coal and the environment.
Renewable sources. Renewable energy.
Biofuels: Ethanol and Biodiesel. Also in Hydropower explained Hydropower Where hydropower is generated Hydropower and the environment Tidal power Wave power Ocean thermal energy conversion. Also in Wind explained Wind Electricity generation from wind Where wind power is harnessed Types of wind turbines History of wind power Wind energy and the environment.