Established by the high-ranking staff officers during wartime, the head of the council was the Sultan. After , the Ministry of War became part of the Imperial Government.
In , the Ministry of War's powers high-ranking staff officers moved to the War Council, and the War Council was abolished when Enver Pasha became the minister of war. The Sultan's group of high-ranking staff officers were silently removed from control. Finally the Ministry of War became part of a civilian structure, which left the General Staff to a military establishment.
The titular Commander-in-Chief of the Ottoman military forces was the Sultan. However, the Minister of War fulfilled as the commander of the military forces. During wartime, the Minister of War was the overall commander, corresponding to the command of the Ottoman Army. At the onset of the Second Constitutional Era in , among the officers there were lieutenants who were 58 years old, captains who were 65 years old and majors who were 80 years old.
In reformation age limits were set 41 for lieutenant, 46 for captains, 52 for majors, 55 for lieutenant colonels, 58 for colonels, 60 for brigadier generals, 65 for generals and 68 for field marshals. In , active duty lengths were set at two years for the infantry, three years for other branches of the Army and five years for the Navy. During the course of the World War, these remained largely theoretical. The uniform of a serasker , the highest military rank of the Ottoman Empire. In the Ottoman Army, the commissioned officers which receive training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military called mektepli translated as educated officers.
There were also commissioned officers who did not receive training, but were put through serving at the ranks at specific periods of time. Princes by birth and important statesmen by position were considered as officers without having received military training or worked through ranks. It is also true that this group may have training on leadership viziers, governors, etc. Its formation was a part of the military reforms within the Ottoman Empire as it recognized the need for more educated officer s to modernize its army.
The Ottoman Armed Forces College was founded in It was renamed the Armed Forces College in As part of the reorganization efforts of the Ottoman Army, new arrangements were implemented in for the Staff College and other Military Schools. Through these arrangements, the General Staff training was extended to three years, and with additional military courses a special emphasis was placed on exercises and hands-on training.
Although being a staff officer was initially considered as a different military branch in itself, effective from new programs were implemented to train staff officers for branches like infantry, cavalry and artillery. Following this principle, a greater number of officers from the Army War Academy began to be admitted to the Staff College. This process continued until Following the declaration of the Second Constitutional Period, the structure of the Staff College was rearranged with a new Staff College Regulation dated 4 August Afterwards, the officers were subjected to examinations, and those who passed the exam were admitted into the College as Staff Officer candidates.
Since all instructors and students went to Anatolia to join the National War of Independence, the Staff College was closed down. The French military system was used before the modern Ottoman Army developed. After defeated by Russia in the war of , the Ottoman's reform process commenced with a fundamental revision. The German military system replaced the French one. The first German military mission arrived in Capitol in It was headed by a cavalry officer named Koehler.
He was appointed as his aide-de-camp. There were three military missions active at the turn of British military advisors, which were mainly naval, had rather less impact on the Ottoman navy. He was recalled in September due to increasing concern Britain would soon enter the war. An interesting note regarding the symbolism; the Ottoman ships painted the same colors as those of the Royal Navy, and the officer insignia mirrored that of the British.
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French military advisors were very effective. A fledgling air force began in , its history began under the Ottoman Aviation Squadrons. A complete overhaul of the provincial gendarme was also a part of the French military mission. The German mission was accredited from 27 October to General Otto Liman von Sanders , previously commander of the 22nd Division, was assigned by the Kaiser to Constantinople. The Ottoman Empire was undecided about which side to take in a future war involving Germany, Britain and France.
The 9th article of the German Military Mission stated that in case of a war the contract would be annulled. The German military mission eventually became the most important among the military missions. The history of German-Ottoman military relations went back to the s. General Goltz served two periods within two years.
The 1st Army was the largest one located on the European side. Dwight relates witnessing an Ottoman military burial in Constantinople and took pictures of it. Dwight says that the soldiers were from every nation ethnicity , but they were only distinguished by their religion, in groups of "Mohammedans" and "Christians". The sermons were performed as based on the count of Bibles, Korans , and Tanakhs in provenance of the battlefield.
This is what the caption of one slide reads on the right :. One officer was left, who made to the grave-diggers and spectators a speech of a moving simplicity. Among us, too, are men of every nation, both Mohammedan and Christian; but we also have one flag and we pray to one God.
Now, I am going to make a prayer, and when I pray let each one of you pray also, in his own language, in his own way. Sultan Abdul Hamid II became aware of the need to renew the weapons of the army in the late 19th century.
This coincides to the European arms industries were in rapid progress. The Ottoman Army had only obsolete weapons with low efficiency. Abdul Hamid II removed the old system, but only an insignificant munitions industry developed. As a consequence, Ottoman Army relied on imports and grants from its allies for its needs of weapons and equipment. The situation is only improved with decree issued on July 3, which included the budget for purchases of arms and ammunition.
In , when constitutional rule was restored, the Ottoman Army had mostly basic rifles and only a few number of rapid-firing ones. The Ottoman Army had no machine gun units until early the changes implemented in July 3, The available ones were used in warships and for coastal defense. The few number of machine guns were all Maxim-Nordenfeld Maxim gun.
Infantry used two different kinds of grenades. The most commonly used offensive grenade was the German stick grenade M and M Stielhandgranate.
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There were also defensive grenades used were "ball" and "egg" shaped. Disposition of the forces in The First Army also had inspectorate functions for four Redif reserve divisions:  The Second Army headquarter established in Adrianople. It commanded the following active divisions and other units:  The Fourth Army also had inspectorate functions for four Redif reserve divisions: .
In , on the paper, the effective 'peace' strength was estimated at , of which , were infantry 55, cavalry 54, artillery. There were field and 22 mountain batteries. From that total active army , contained battalions of infantry, squadrons of cavalry and 6 gun batteries of artillery. The Redif, reserve, , contained battalions of infantry and supplemental and incomplete battalions and 48 squadrons of cavalry.
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The division of the empire into seven army corps districts. Also there were two independent divisions Medina and Tripoli would be supplanted and a number of divisions organized each consisting of three regiments nine battalions and a training battalion. First Army was headquartered in Harbiye. Responsible for the Balkans and operational control over forces in Syria and Palestine. The Fifth Army's headquarters were in Baghdad.
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First army in European Thrace. Second army in Balkans. Third Army in Caucasus. Fourth Army Mesopotamia. Before the Empire entered the war, the four armies divided their forces into corps and divisions such that each division had three infantry regiments and an artillery regiment. The main units were: First Army with fifteen divisions; Second Army with 4 divisions plus an independent infantry division with three infantry regiments and an artillery brigade.
The second army headquarters was located in Aleppo Syria commanding two corps made up of two divisions. Third Army with nine divisions, four independent infantry regiments and four independent cavalry regiments tribal units ; and the Fourth Army with four divisions. The Redif system had been done away with, and the plan was to have reserve soldiers fill out active units rather than constitute separate units. In August , of 36 infantry divisions organized, fourteen were established from scratch and were essentially new divisions. In a very short time, eight of these newly recruited divisions went through major redeployment.
The First and Second army located in this region. The Third army acquired new supplies for a winter offense. On March 24, 5th Army and September 5, 6th Army established. In February the defense of Straits was reorganized. It later provided troops to the fighting on the Gallipoli Peninsula but did not otherwise had a role. The Second Army was made up of veterans of the Gallipoli campaign as well as two new divisions. Due to the poor state of the Ottoman rail network , it took a long period of time to move the forces.
The Second army was deactivated in on 4 February From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Classical army — Reform period. Modern army — Modern Army.
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Officer of general staff wearing the Imperial German Army dunkelblau uniform. Note the French-inspired Zouave uniform on the right. German-inspired dunkelblau uniforms, and a French-inspired Zouave uniform. Resembling the Prussian Uhlan regiment uniform. Combatant branches.