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Mothur software was used to do rarefaction analysis on the OTU level of bacteria, the abundance-based coverage estimator Ace , the bias-corrected Chao richness estimator, and the Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were also calculated.

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The one-way ANOVA test was performed to analyze the differences in bacterial communities of fecal bacteria suspension among groups. As shown in Fig.

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Rarefaction curves plotting the number of phylotypes a and Chao richness estimator b in the 16Sr RNA gene libraries by the number of sequences from active microbiota in all groups. Principal coordinate analysis PCoA of active bacterial communities in all groups. At the phylum level Fig. The average relative abundance of active microbial phyla in all groups.

The cluster analysis based on heat map demonstrated a higher similarity of the samples within group than that among groups except the AN-CR group Fig. Heat map of genera in the relative abundances of active bacterial communities in all groups. Besides, whether the fecal bacteria suspension is fresh, it may also affect the efficacy of FMT after transplantation.

This study aimed to compare the active bacteria of the fecal bacteria suspension under different preparation conditions, and provide a reference for optimizing the preparation conditions of the fecal bacteria suspension and improving the efficacy of FMT. For operating convenience, the donor feces were moved into the fecal bacteria suspension during FMT. So, here we compared differences in the active bacterial communities between feces and fecal bacteria suspension.

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The PCoA map demonstrated that the structure of the active microbiota between the pig feces and the fecal bacteria suspension varied, indicating the preparation of fecal bacteria suspension affected the active microbial compositions. The relative abundances of L.


As a probiotic strain, L. Therefore, the modification of active bacteria during the preparation of fecal bacteria suspension may impact the clinical effect of FMT. However, previous studies reported that prepared fecal bacteria suspension had similar efficacy as fresh feces on treating Clostridium difficile infections in human Satokari et al. In contrast, the difference between feces and fecal suspension in active microbial composition may due to a lack of uniform standard in the preparation process such as donor selection, dilution ratio such as donor selection, dilution ratio Hu et al.

We also hypothesized that some altered bacteria were not important for maintain the homeostasis. Although the fecal bacteria suspension is for the most studies prepared under anaerobic conditions Diao et al. There are a large number of microorganisms in the feces, and most of them are strict anaerobes that fastidious about the living environment.


Therefore, we speculated that preparing the fecal bacteria suspension under anaerobic conditions was beneficial to ensure the integrity of the fecal microbiota. Our results showed that the diversity of active bacteria in fecal bacterial suspension produced under anaerobic conditions was significantly higher than that in aerobic group, regardless of whether they were cryopreserved or not. And PCoA analysis showed that the microbial compositions in the AE group were differed from the AN group, indicating that preparing the fecal bacteria suspension can achieve the most active donor flora under strict anaerobic conditions, as described previously.

This finding was based on the fact that the anaerobic state maintains the physiological activity of most anaerobic bacteria in the feces. At the genus level, the abundances of active Prevotella and unclassified Prevotellaceae in the fecal bacteria suspension were significantly higher under aerobic conditions. Genus Prevotella is a well-known anaerobic bacterium.

Some Texas beaches have high fecal bacteria counts, map shows

However, the main reason for these difference is still unknown, which needs further investigation. Moreover, if the influence of bacterial sedimentation factors was not avoided during the fecal bacteria suspension preparation, it was even more difficult to obtain data sufficient to represent the feces as a whole. It may also explain the fact that the above anaerobic bacteria had a higher diversity under aerobic conditions Hsieh et al.

The fecal bacteria suspension is usually prepared in advance, so it is necessary to investigate the effect of cryopreservation on bacterial compositions.

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These results indicated that the transient cryopreservation had little impact on the activity of the flora in the fecal bacteria suspension. Therefore, cryopreserved fecal bacteria suspension could save energy and cost without loss of efficiency and safety during the process of FMT Borody et al. In conclusion, the present study found that the diversity of active bacteria in the fecal bacteria suspension prepared under anaerobic conditions was significantly increased compared with aerobic conditions. Whether under anaerobic or aerobic conditions, the preparation of fecal bacteria suspension changed the structure of the active bacteria in the feces of the sow.

The short-term cryopreservation had low impact on the structure of the active bacteria in the fecal bacteria suspension. The method that could completely ensure the activity of fecal microbiota during the preparation of FMT suspension needs further investigation. J Microbiol Methods — Aliment Pharmacol Ther — ISME J — Lancet J Clin Gastroenterol — Pol Arch Med Wewn — Ecol Monogr — Nat Methods — Nucleic Acids Res D—D J Gastroenterol Hepatol — Clin Microbiol Infect — RSC Adv — J Appl Microbiol — Am J Gastroenterol — Appl Environ Microbiol — Front Microbiol Nutrition — Khajah MA The potential role of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of inflammatory Bowel disease.

Scand J Gastroenterol — Prosser JI Molecular and functional diversity in soil microorganisms. Plant Soil — The Guardian reported on Wednesday that a new study from the Environment America Research and Policy Center EARPC has discovered that more than half the beaches in the United States have had potentially unsafe levels of fecal bacteria at some point in A worrisome of the sites were found potentially dangerous on more than a quarter of the days when the water was tested.

The worst two beaches in terms of having a lot of potentially infectious fecal matter were found to be — in first place — Singing Bridge Beach of Arenec county, Michigan, and — in second — San Pedro Creek of San Mateo county, whose water was deemed potentially unsafe on 91 percent of days sampled.

Evil beach poop! Sounds gross, obviously, but can it really hurt you?

A look at the results of fecal bacteria levels in Texas beaches | WOAI

John Rumpler, a co-author of the report, told The Guardian that fecal contamination can cause respiratory disease, eye and ear infections, gastrointestinal illness, and skin rashes. Contamination is promoted through overflowing sewages and run-off, which are further exasperated by big storms incited by climate change. Already a subscriber?

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